欧洲杯买球分析赛事

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高速气体熄灭器研制

择要 先容一种高速气体熄灭器的手艺特色、设想要点和详细的设想体例,并操纵液体火箭发念头的熄灭手艺,为财产加热炉开辟了一种高效、节能、低净化的新型高速气体熄灭器,弥补了我公民用熄灭器手艺的一项空缺,已胜利地操纵在油田、钢铁、陶瓷等行业。
关头词 液体火箭发念头,熄灭器,熄灭实验。

1 前 言

GAOSUQITIXIMIEQISHIGUDAIXIMIESHOUYIZAICAICHANXIMIEQICAICHANDEBIAOXIAN,QICHUKOUCHUDIWENXIMIECHANWUDEFANGSHESULVKEDA100 m/s~300 m/s,JUBEIJIENENG、GAOXIAO、HUOYANDONGLIANGKEKONGDENGSHOUYISHANGFENG,ZAIFACAIGUODUYIPUBIANDICAOZONGZAIHANGKONG、GANGTIE、HUAGONG、QINGGONGDENGXINGYEDEGELEIJIARELUSHANG。WOGUOZAI80NIANYUEYINJINCIXIANGSHOUYI,BINGYOUYIXIEFANGZAODECHANWUTOURUSHICHANG,KESHIYINWEIQIBENQIANGAO、NAIHUOZILIAONEICHENYIHUAI、CAOZONGSHOUMINGDUAN,YINGXIANGLETUIXING。

GAOSUQITIXIMIEQISHIYIZHONGBARANLIAODEHUAXUENENGZHUANHUANCHENGXIMIECHANWUDESHINENGHEDONGNENGDEZHUANGPEI,YETIHUOJIANFANIANTOUSHIYIZHONGBATUIDONGJIDEHUAXUENENGZHUANHUANCHENGXIMIECHANWUDERENENGHEDONGNENGDEZHUANGPEI,ERZHEZAIRENWUDAOLISHANGYOULEISIDEDIFANG。CAOZONGZAIYETIHUOJIANFANIANTOUYANZHIFANGMIANDEFENGSHUOJINGLI,KAIPIYANZHILEYIZHONGQUANJINSHUBUJU,JIENAZAISHENGLENGQUEDEGAOJINENGDEGAOSUQITIXIMIEQI。

1.1 高速气体熄灭器的手艺特色

a) 切确构造熄灭,熄灭效力99.9%;
b) 宽运转工况:热负荷调理比1∶20, 氛围系数0.5~10;
c) 接纳分级熄灭,无害气体(NOx)排放合适国度环保规范;
d) 具备烟气引射回流功效,能够或许将废烟气从炉后引回从头投入炉内;
e) 全金属布局,持续操纵寿命3年。

1.2 高速熄灭器进步换热效力的机理

ZAICHUANTONGDECAICHANLUSHEXIANGZHONG,XIMIEQIDEHUOYANSULVYUEMOWEIMEIMIAOJIMI,DANGXIMIECHANWUWENDUZAI600 °C~800 °CSHI,LUNEIDUILIUHUANREYUFUSHEHUANREGEZHAN50%;ZAIXIMIECHANWUWENDUWEI800 ℃YISHANGSHI,YIFUSHEHUANREWEIZHU;ZAIXIMIECHANWUWENDUDAODA1 400 ℃SHI,FUSHEHUANRESHIDUILIUHUANREDE10BEI,YISHIDABUFENLUYAOSHEXIANGZHONG,YINCIFUSHEHUANREWEIGENBEN。KESHIZAIJIENAGAOSUQITIXIMIEQIHOU,JIBIANZAIDIWENQU,LUNEIBEIQIANGHUADEDUILIUHUANREZAIZONGHEHUANREZHONGSUOZHANDEBIYANZHONGDAJINBU,XIANGXISHENMINGYIXIA。

JIENATONGSUXIMIEQISHI,HUOYANSULVDI,XIMIECHANWUZAIBEIJIAREWUWAIBIAODEHUODONGWEICENGLIU,CENGLIUDEDUILIUHUANREXISHUWEI

h1-Nu*λ/d

SHIZHONG NUXIEERTESHUNu=0.332Pr1/3*Re1/2;PrWEIPULANGTESHU;ReWEILEINUOSHU;λWEIQITIDEDAOREXISHU;dWEILIUDAODANGLIANGZHIJING。

JIENAGAOSUQITIXIMIEQI, HUOYANFANGSHESULVGAO(100 m/s~300 m/s),BEIJIARETIWAIBIAOHUODONGYIWENLIUWEIZHU,WENLIUFUMIANCENGBUFENFANGREXISHUWEI

h2=Nu*λ/d

SHIZHONGNu=Pr1/3(0.036Re0.8-836)

SHEJIARELUNEIQIANGCHICUNWEI6.45m×2.3m×2.9m,XIMIECHANWUWENDUWEI1 790 ℃,BEIJIARETIWENDUWEI900 ℃。

JIENATONGSUXIMIEQI,XIMIECHANWULIUSUWEI5 m/sSHI,XIMIECHANWUYUBEIJIARETIWAIBIAOZHIJIANDEDUILIUHUANREBIRELIUWEI

q1=h1(tg-tw)=2671X4.18kJ/h*m2

JIENAGAOSUQITIXIMIEQI,XIMIECHANWULIUSUWEI150 m/sSHI,XIMIECHANWUYUBEIJIARETIWAIBIAOZHIJIANDEDUILIUHUANREBIRELIUWEI

q2=h2(tg-tw)=10685X4.18kJ/h*m2

q2SHIq1DE4BEI。

WAIYANGCENGJIUFUSHEJIARELUHEGAOSUDUILIUJIARELUTINGZHIGUOBINISHIYAN,ZAI0 ℃~1 200 ℃DEJIAREJINCHENGZHONG,FUSHEJIARELUSUOXUJIARESHIHOUSHIGAOSUDUILIUJIARELUDE6BEI,ZAI750 ℃~1 200 ℃DEJIAREJINCHENGZHONG,FUSHEJIARELUSUOXUJIARESHIHOUSHIGAOSUDUILIUJIARELUDE10BEI。

1980NIAN,GUOJIYINJINGAOSUQITIXIMIEQIZAIJINGSHIJIARELUSHANGTINGZHISHOUYIGEXIN,YUANBENDEFUSHEJIARELUCONG0 ℃~650 ℃SHENGWENXUYAO24 h,ERJIENALEGAOSUQITIXIMIEQIDEJIARELUCONG0 ℃~650 ℃SHENGWENZHIYAO4 h,BINGQIERANLIAOHAOSUNLIANGYEYINWEIJIENALEGAOSUQITIXIMIEQINENGGOUHUOXUJIELIU25%~30%。

ZAIYOUTIAN,YONGGAOSUQITIXIMIEQIGEXINCHENGSANHEYIJIARELU,JIAREXIAOLIJINBULE1BEI,ERRANLIAOHAOSUNLIANGJIEJIANLE20%。

GAOSUQITIXIMIEQIDEXIMIECHANWUGAOSUCHONGJINJIARELUNEI,JIAODONGDUOBEIDELUNEIQITISUIZHICHANHUN,NENGGOUHUOXUDADAJINBULUNEIWENDUPINGJUNDU。WAIYANGYIJIAGONGCHANGYONGGAOSUQITIXIMIEQIGEXINJIARELUHOU,LUNEIWENDUPINGJUNDUKEYOU±15 ℃JINBUDAO±2 ℃。GUOJIJINGSHIJIARELUJIENAGAOSUQITIXIMIEQIHOU,LUWENPINGJUNDUDAODA±7 ℃。

2 高速气体熄灭器设想要点

2.1 切确构造熄灭

XINYANZHIDEGAOSUQITIXIMIEQI,WEILEDAODAWANZHENGXIMIE,SHIRANQIHEFENWEIJINGYOUGUOCHENGHAOFANDEPENKONGBIELIJINRUXIMIESHI,RANQISHELIUYUFENWEISHELIUZHUYIZHUANGJI,PINGJUNJIAZA,FENJIESHELIUSHILIANGBIAODEMUDEYINGYUXIMIESHIZHUZHOUXIANPINGXING,BIMIANYISHELIUCHUANTOULINGWAIYISHELIU,GOUCHENGJIAZABUJUN。WEILEXUEJIANNOxDETIANSHENG,JIENAFENQUXIMIE,QIANQUXIMIEWENDUDIYUHOUQUXIMIEWENDU,ZAIXIMIESHICHUKOUXIMIEWENDUZUIGAO。QIANQUSHIPINYANGXIMIE,HOUQUZENGTIANGONGYANG,ZAIXIMIESHICHUKOUDAODADUOYUFENWEIXISHUα=1。

RUSISHEXIANG,JINENGGOUHUOXUGONGDAOPEIFENG,BAOZHANGWANZHENGXIMIE,BIMIANCOTIANSHENG,YOUNENGGOUHUOXUBAOCHIJIAODIDEXIMIEWENDU,XUEJIANWUHAIQITINOxDETIANSHENG。

2.2 熄灭室室壁冷却

XIMIESHINEIBUMANDIWENDEXIMIECHANWU,QIJINSHUSHIBIBIXUYOUCHONGZUDELENGQUE,NENGLININGJINGRENWU。XIAOFANGYETIHUOJIANFANIANTOUDEZAISHENGLENGQUE,ZAIGAOSUQITIXIMIEQIDESHEXIANGZHONG,CAOZONGFENWEIZAIXIMIESHIWAIQIANGHUODONG,JIESHOUSHIBICHUANDAODERELIANG,BAOZHANGSHIBIZAININGJINGDEWENDUGUIMONEIRENWU。TONGSHIJIANGFENWEIYURENENGGOUHUOXUZENGJINWANZHENGXIMIEHEJINBUSHIJIXIMIEWENDU。

ZAIXIMIESHIPENKOUBUFENDIWENQU,TEDISHEXIANGYOUFENWEIMOYANHUJINSHUBI。

YINWEIJIENALEYISHANGDESHEXIANG,GAOSUQITIXIMIEQIDECAOZONGSHOUMINGKEDA3NIAN,ERQIYUDANYUANSHEXIANGCHUCHANDEGAOSUQITIXIMIEQIDEXIMIESHIYOUNAIHUOZILIAOZUONEICHEN,CAOZONGSHOUMINGWEIJIGEYUE,NAIZHIYOUDECHANWU,QINAIHUOZILIAONEICHENRENWUQUEFA3GEYUEJIUKAILIE。

2.3 流阻设想

ZAIGAOSUQITIXIMIEQISHEXIANGZHONG,WEILESHIXIMIECHANWUJUBEICHONGZUDEDONGLIANG,XIMIESHIYINGDANGYOUBIRANDEYALI。ANZHAOYONGHUGONGJIDERANQIWULIHUAXUECANSHUHESULVQINGQIU,TINGZHIXIMIEJIJIAOKENDINGXIMIECHANWUDEGEGERELICANSHUHOU,XIMIESHINEIXIMIECHANWUDEYALINENGGOUHUOXUQIUCHU,JI

pc=pa/[1-(k-1)w2/2kRT]k/(k-1)

SHIZHONGpcWEIXIMIESHIYALI;paWEIQINGKUANGYALI;kWEIXIMIECHANWUJUEREZHISHU;RWEIXIMIECHANWUQITICHANGSHU;TWEIXIMIEWENDU;wWEIXIMIECHANWUZAIPENKOUCHUDELIUSU。

FENWEIHERANQIJINRUXIMIEQI,LIUJINGGEZIDETONGDAO,DIANMOPENKONGJINRUXIMIESHI,YANTUCUNZAIBIRANDELIUZU。TU1JICHULEXIMIEQIFENWEILIULIANGQkHEFENWEIYAJIANGΔpkDEGANXI;TU2JICHULEXIMIEQIRANQILIULIANGQrHERANQIYAJIANGΔprDEGANXI。

 

图1 熄灭器氛围流路流量与压降的干系(20 ℃) 图2 熄灭器<a href=http://zarnatur.com/ranshaoqi/index178_list_t1_1.html target=_blank class=infotextkey>自然气</a>流路流量与压降的干系(20 ℃)
图1 熄灭器氛围流路流量与压降的干系(20 ℃) 图2 熄灭器自然气流路流量与压降的干系(20 ℃)

XIMIEQIDEFENWEIRUKOUYALIpkSHIXIMIESHIYALIpcHEFENWEIYAJIANGΔpkZHIHE,XIMIEQIDERANQIRUKOUYALIprSHIXIMIESHIYALIpcHERANQIYAJIANGΔprZHIHE。JI:

pk=pc+Δpk
pr=pc+Δpr

pkHEprBUNENGTAIGAO,YINGDANGZHIZUYONGHUGONGJIDECAOZONGQIANTI。

GAOSUQITIXIMIEQIZAICAOZONGZIRANQIZUORANQISHI,XIMIECHANWUSULVWEI100 m/s,QIZIRANQIRUKOUYALIWEI2 500 Pa,FENWEIRUKOUYALIWEI2 100 Pa。

3 设想计较

3.1 熄灭计较

JINGYOUGUOCHENGXIMIEJIJIAOKENDINGRANQIXIMIEDEFENWEIXUYAOLIANGL0、XIMIECHANWULIANGVα、XIMIECHANWUMIDUρ、QITICHANGSHUR、JUEREZHISHUKHESHIJIXIMIEWENDUT。

a) 按照选定的燃气,肯定低位热值Qyd和构成成分的容积百分比。
b) 肯定熄灭1m3燃气所需的实际氛围量L0为

L0=4.672/100*[1/2*CO+1/2*H2+(n+m/4)CnHm+3/2*H2S-O2]

SHIZHONG CO,H2,CnHmWEIRANQICHENGFENRONGJIBAIFENBI。

c) KENDINGXIMIE1m3RANQIFASHENGDEXIMIECHANWULIANGVyWEI

Vy=αL0+0.38+0.075Qyd/1000

e) KENDINGSHIJIXIMIEWENDUTWEI

T=(Qyd+CrTr+CkTkLα)/(VyCy) (α>1)
T=(Qy+CrTr+CkTkLα)/(VyCy) (α<1)

SHIZHONG Cr,Ck,CyBIELISHIRANQI、FENWEI、XIMIECHANWUDEPINGJUNBIRE;Tr、TkBIELISHIRANQIHEFENWEIDEZHAODUANWENDU;QyWEIRANQIDEYOUYONGFASHAOLIANG。

Qy=Qyd-QVy

SHIZHONG QWEIXIMIECHANWUSUOHANDERELIANG。

Q=3022Xco + 2581Xh2

SHIZHONG Xco、Xh2WEIXIMIECO、H2DERONGJIBAIFENBIHANLIANG)。

f) KENDINGXIMIECHANWUMIDUWEI

α=1 SHI ρy=(44Xco2 + 18XH2O +28XN2)/22.4

α<1 SHI ρy=(44Xco2 + 28Xco + 18XH2O + 2XH20 + 28XN2)/22.4

SHIZHONGXco2、Xco、Xh2O、Xh2、Xn2BIELIWEICO2、CO、H2O、H2、N2ZAIXIMIECHANWUZHONGDERONGJIBAIFENBIHANLIANG。

g) KENDINGXIMIECHANWUQITICHANGSHURWEI

R=8.314/Meq

SHIZHONGMeqWEIXIMIECHANWUDEZHEHEFENZILIANG。

式中Xi为第i种成分在熄灭产物中的容积百分比含量

 

SHIZHONGXiWEIDIiZHONGCHENGFENZAIXIMIECHANWUZHONGDERONGJIBAIFENBIHANLIANG;MiWEIDIiZHONGCHENGFENDEFENZILIANG。

h) KENDINGXIMIECHANWUJUEREZHISHUkWEI

式中Cpi为熄灭产物中第i种成分的比热

 

SHIZHONGCpiWEIXIMIECHANWUZHONGDIiZHONGCHENGFENDEBIRE。

3.2 熄灭室布局设想计较

a) 选定熄灭器的热负荷Q0。
b) 肯定燃气耗损量Vr(体积)、Gr(品质)为

式中 ρr为燃气密度

 

SHIZHONG ρrWEIRANQIMIDU。

c) KENDINGFENWEIHAOSUNLIANGVk(TIJI)、Gk(PINZHI)WEI

Vk=L0Vr
Gk=Vkρk

SHIZHONGρkWEIFENWEIMIDU。

d) 肯定熄灭产物天生量Gy为 Gy=Gr+Gk
e) 按照操纵前提选定熄灭产物在喷口的速率we。

f) KENDINGXIMIESHICHUKOUJIEMIANJIFe、ZHIJINGdeWEI

Fe=GyWe/ρy(1+T/273)

g) KENDINGXIMIESHIYUANTONGDUANJIEMIANJIF1、ZHIJINGd1WEI

肯定熄灭室圆筒段长度L1为 L1=(1~1.4)d1

 

h) KENDINGXIMIESHIYUANTONGDUANZHANGDUL1WEI L1=(1~1.4)d1

3.3 熄灭室喷孔设想计较

3.3.1 燃气喷孔设想计较

a) RANQIFANGSHESULVwrjDEXUANDING。

XUANDINGDEZHUNSHENGSHI:RANQISHELIUYUXIANGYINGDEFENWEISHELIUZHUANGJIHOU,FENJIESHELIUBIAODEMUDEYUXIMIESHIZHOUXIANPINGXING。

b) 肯定燃气喷孔总面积Frj为 Frj=Vr/wrj
c) 肯定燃气放射流量沿燃气喷管长度的百分比散布。

 

ANZHAOTU3,RANQILIULIANGZAIXIMIESHIHUNRANQUDEBAIFENBISANBU,KENDINGRANQIFANGSHELIULIANGYANRANQIPENGUANZHANGDUDEBAIFENBISANBU。

 

熄灭室内氛围燃气流量的分派

TU3 XIMIESHINEIFENWEIRANQILIULIANGDEFENPAI

d) KENDINGRANQIPENKONGYANRANQIPENGUANZHANGDUDESANBU。

YANRANQIPENGUANZHANGDUBIAODEMUDEGONGYOUnZURANQIPENKONG,JIANJUYUEWEI20 mm;YANRANQIPENGUANYUANZHOUBIAODEMUDE,MEIZUGONGYOUmGEPENKONG,m=12~24。

e) KENDINGGEZURANQIPENKONGZHIJING。

ANZHAORANQILIULIANGYANPENGUANZHANGDUDEBAIFENBISANBU,NENGGOUHUOXUXIAODEPENKONGDEMIANJIBAIFENBISANBU,XIAODEMEIZUPENKONGDEZONGMIANJI,SHETONGZUPENKONGZHIJINGBUYI,ZEGAIPENKONGZHIJINGKEQIU。

3.3.2 氛围喷孔设想计较

a) FENWEIFANGSHESULVwkjDEXUANDING。

XUANDINGDEZHUNSHENGTONG3.3.1,ZAIEWAISHEXIANGZHUANGKUANGXIA,CHANGYIwkj≈15m/s。

b) 肯定氛围喷孔总面积Fkj为 Fkj=Vk/wkj
c) 肯定氛围放射流量在熄灭室内壁的散布。

ANZHAOTU3KENDINGFENWEILIULIANG,ZAIEWAISHEXIANGZHUANGKUANGXIA,CHANGYIZAIFENSHAOQUDEFENWEIDUOYUXISHUα≈0.6;ZAIHUNRANQUJIEWEIα≈0.8;ZAIWEIRANSHIJIEWEIα≈1。TU4WEIXIMIESHINEIQITILIUCHENGTU。

熄灭室内气体流程图

 

TU4 XIMIESHINEIQITILIUCHENGTU

d) HUNRANQUFENWEIPENKONGFENZU。

ANZHAORANLIAOPENKONGFENZUKENDINGFENWEIPENKONGFENZU,MEIZUFENWEIPENKONGGESHUWEIm。

e) WEIRANQUFENWEIPENKONGDEKENDING。

WEIRANQUFENWEILIULIANGYUEZHANFENWEIZONGLIULIANGDE20%~30%,FENWEIPENKONGYINGDANGZHIJINGXIAO、SHUMUDA,ZAIWEIRANQUTONGNEIBIGOUCHENGPINGJUNDEFENWEILENGQUEMO。

4 熄灭实验

GAOSUQITIXIMIEQIJINGZIRANQIXIMIESHIYAN,ZHENGSHIQIRENWUKAODEZHU、CAOZONGJIANJIE。

4.1 焚烧体例

XIMIESHIYANJIENALELIANGZHONGDIANFENSHAOTILI,YIZHONGSHIGAONENG

FENSHAOQIDHZ-103,FENSHAOPINCI1.5CI/s,ZHUNENG12J/CI;LINGWAIYIZHONGSHIHUOYANJIANCEFENSHAOQIHJ-1,FENSHAODIANYA15 000 V,FENSHAOZUIWEIQICHEHUOHUASAI。

4.2 焚烧法式

a) 按额外负荷所需总氛围量的1/4供风;
b) 电焚烧器通电;
c) 翻开自然气开关,在α≈0.6时,便可胜利焚烧。

4.3 热负荷调理

EWAIREFUHEWEI30 m3/hDEXIMIEQI,ZAISHIYANZHONG,ZIRANYULIANGXUEJIANZHI1.6 m3/hSHI,RENGNENGBAOCHIXIMIE(α≈14)。

4.4 氛围系数调理

SHIYANZHONG,XIMIEQIDEFENWEIXISHUDIAOLIGUIMOWEI0.5~20,DOUKEBAOCHIXIMIE。

4.5 燃气温度调理

SHIYANZHONG,XIMIEQICHUHUABINGCEWENDUBIANGENGGUIMOWEI90 ℃~1 300 ℃(α≥2)。

5 结 论

GAOSUQITIXIMIEQISHICAOZONGYETIHUOJIANFANIANTOUDEXIMIESHOUYIWEICAICHANJIARELUKAIPIDEYIZHONGGAOXIAO、JIENENG、DIJINGHUAXIMIEQI。JINGZIRANQIXIMIESHIYAN,ZHENGSHIQIRENWUKAODEZHU、CAOZONGJIANLVE、REFUHEDIAOLIGUIMODA、FENWEIDUOYUXISHUJIRANQIWENDUDIAOLIGUIMODA。GAIXIMIEQIJINCHAOYISHENGLIDICAOZONGZAIYOUTIAN、TAOCI、GANGTIEDENGXINGYEDEJIARELUSHANG。



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